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      半導體知識
      首頁 > 產品知識>>半導體知識 >>什么是瞬態抑制二極管

      什么是瞬態抑制二極管

      瞬態抑制二極管(TransientVoltageSuppressor)簡稱TVS,是一種二極管形式的高效能保護器件。當TVS二極管的兩極受到反向瞬態高能量沖擊時,它能以10的負12次方秒量級的速度,將其兩極間的高阻抗變為低阻抗,吸收高達數千瓦的浪涌功率,使兩極間的電壓箝位于一個預定值,有效地保護電子線路中的精密元器件,免受各種浪涌脈沖的損壞。由于它具有響應時間快、瞬態功率大、漏電流低、擊穿電壓偏差、箝位電壓較易控制、無損壞極限、體積小等優點。
      已廣泛應用于計算機系統、通訊設備、交/直流電源、汽車、電子鎮流器、家用電器、儀器儀表(電度表)、RS232/422/423/485、I/O、LAN、ISDN、ADSL、USB、MP3、PDAS、GPS、CDMA、GSM、數字照相機的保護、共模/差模保護、RF耦合/IC驅動接收保護、電機電磁波干擾抑制、聲頻/視頻輸入、傳感器/變速器、工控回路、繼電器、接觸器噪音的抑制等各個領域。具體有以下三大特點:

      1、將TVS二極管加在信號及電源線上,能防止微處理器或單片機因瞬間的肪沖,如靜電放電效應、交流電源之浪涌及開關電源的噪音所導致的失靈。
      2、靜電放電效應能釋放超過10000V、60A以上的脈沖,并能持續10ms;而一般的TTL器件,遇到超過30ms的10V脈沖時,便會導至損壞。利用TVS二極管,可有效吸收會造成器件損壞的脈沖,并能消除由總線之間開關所引起的干擾(Crosstalk)。
      3、將TVS二極管放置在信號線及接地間,能避免數據及控制總線受到不必要的噪音影響。
      一、TVS的特性及主要參數
      1、TVS的特性曲線
      TVS的電路符號與普通穩壓二極管相同。它的正向特性與普通二極管相同;反向特性為典型的PN結雪崩器件。在瞬態峰值脈沖電流作用下,流過TVS的電流,由原來的反向漏電流ID上升到IR時,其兩極呈現的電壓由額定反向關斷電壓VWM上升到擊穿電壓VBR,TVS被擊穿。隨著峰值脈沖電流的出現,流過TVS的電流達到峰值脈沖電流IPP。在其兩極的電壓被箝位到預定的最大箝位電壓以下。爾后,隨著脈沖電流按指數衰減,TVS兩極的電壓也不斷下降,最后恢復到起始狀態。這就是TVS抑制可能出現的浪涌脈沖功率,保護電子元器件的整個過程。

      2、TVS的特性參數
      ①最大反向漏電流ID和額定反向關斷電壓VWM。
      VWM是TVS最大連續工作的直流或脈沖電壓,當這個反向電壓加入TVS的兩極間時,它處于反向關斷狀態,流過它的電流應于或等于其最大反向漏電流ID。

      ②最擊穿電壓VBR和擊穿電流IRVBR是TVS最的雪崩電壓。25℃時,在這個電壓之前,TVS是不導通的。當TVS流過規定的1mA電流(IR)時,加入TVS兩極間的電壓為其最擊穿電壓VBR。按TVS的VBR與標準值的離散程度,可把TVS分為±5%VBR和平共處±10%VBR兩種。對于±5%VBR來說,VWM=0.85VBR;對于±10%VBR來說,VWM=0.81VBR。

      ③最大箝拉電壓VC和最大峰值脈沖電流IPP
      當持續時間為20微秒的脈沖峰值電流IPP流過TVS時,在其兩極間出現的最大峰值電壓為VC。它是串聯電阻上和因溫度系數兩者電壓上升的組合。VC、IPP反映TVS器件的浪涌抑制能力。VC與VBR之比稱為箝位因子,一般在1.2~1.4之間。

      ④電容量C
      電容量C是TVS雪崩結截面決定的、在特定的1MHZ頻率下測得的。C的大與TVS的電流承受能力成正比,C過大將使信號衰減。因此,C是數據接口電路選用TVS的重要參數。

      ⑤最大峰值脈沖功耗PM
      PM是TVS能承受的最大峰值脈沖耗散功率。其規定的試驗脈沖波形和各種TVS的PM值,請查閱有關產品手冊。在給定的最大箝位電壓下,功耗PM越大,其浪涌電流的承受能力越大;在給定的功耗PM下,箝位電壓VC越低,其浪涌電流的承受能力越大。另外,峰值脈沖功耗還與脈沖波形、持續時間和環境溫度有關。而且TVS所能承受的瞬態脈沖是不重復的,器件規定的脈沖重復頻率(持續時間與間歇時間之比)為0.01%,如果電路內出現重復性脈沖,應考慮脈沖功率的“累積”,有可能使TVS損壞。

      ⑥箝位時間TC
      TC是從零到最擊穿電壓VBR的時間。對單極性TVS于1×10-12秒;對雙極性TVS于是1×10-11秒。

      二、TVS二極管的分類
      TVS器件可以按極性分為單極性和雙極性兩種,按用途可分為各種電路都適用的通用型器件和特殊電路適用的專用型器件。如:各種交流電壓保護器、4~200mA電流環保器、數據線保護器、同軸電纜保護器、電話機保護器等。若按封裝及內部結構可分為:軸向引線二極管、雙列直插TVS陣列(適用多線保護)、貼片式、組件式和大功率模塊式等。

      三、TVS的選用技巧
      1、確定被保護電路的最大直流或連續工作電壓、電路的額定標準電壓和“高端”容限。
      2、TVS額定反向關斷VWM應大于或等于被保護電路的最大工作電壓。若選
        用的VWM太低,器件可能進入雪崩或因反向漏電流太大影響電路的正常工作。串行連接分電壓,并行連接分電流。
      3、TVS的最大箝位電壓VC應于被保護電路的損壞電壓。
      4、在規定的脈沖持續時間內,TVS的最大峰值脈沖功耗PM必須大于被保護電路內可能出現的峰值脈沖功率。在確定最大箝位電壓后,其峰值脈沖電流應大于瞬態浪涌電流。
      5、對于數據接口電路的保護,還必須注意選取具有合適電容C的TVS器件。
      6、根據用途選用TVS的極性及封裝結構。交流電路選用雙極性TVS較為合理;多線保護選用TVS陣列更為有利。
      7、溫度考慮。瞬態電壓抑制器可以在-55~+150℃之間工作。如果需要TVS在一個變化的溫度工作,由于其反向漏電流ID是隨增加而增大;功耗隨TVS結溫增加而下降,從+25℃到+175℃,大約線性下降50%雨擊穿電壓VBR隨溫度的增加按一定的系數增加。因此,必須查閱有關產品資料,考慮溫度變化對其特
      性的影響。

      四、TVS與壓敏電阻的比較
      ,國內不少需進行浪涌保護的設備上使用的是壓敏電阻。壓敏電阻是一種金屬化物變阻器。TVS比壓敏電阻的特性優越得多.

       

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    3. 更新時間:2016-05-30
    4. 發布者:
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