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      半導體知識
      首頁 > 產品知識>>半導體知識 >>二極管的工作原理

      二極管的工作原理

      幾乎在所有的電子電路中,都要用到半導體二極管,它在許多的電路中起著重要的作用,它是誕生最早的半導體器件之一,其應用也非常廣泛。

       

      二極管的工作原理

       

          晶體二極管為一個由p型半導體和n型半導體形成的p-n結,在其界面處兩側形成空間電荷層,并建有自建電場。當不存在外加電壓時,由于p-n 結兩邊載流子濃度差引起的擴散電流和自建電場引起的漂移電流相等而處于電平衡狀態。

       

          當外界有正向電壓偏置時,外界電場和自建電場的互相抑消作用使載流子的擴散電流增加引起了正向電流。

       

          當外界有反向電壓偏置時,外界電場和自建電場進一步加強,形成在一定反向電壓范圍內與反向偏置電壓值無關的反向飽和電流I0。

       

          當外加的反向電壓高到一定程度時,p-n結空間電荷層中的電場強度達到臨界值產生載流子的倍增過程,產生大量電子空穴對,產生了數值很大的反向擊穿電流,稱為二極管的擊穿現象。

       

      二極管的類型

       

          二極管種類有很多,按照所用的半導體材料,可分為鍺二極管(Ge管)和硅二極管(Si管)。根據其不同用途,可分為檢波二極管、整流二極管、穩壓二極管、開關二極管等。按照管芯結構,又可分為點接觸型二極管、面接觸型二極管及平面型二極管。點接觸型二極管是用一根很細的金屬絲壓在光潔的半導體晶片表面,通以脈沖電流,使觸絲一端與晶片牢固地燒結在一起,形成一個“PN結”。由于是點接觸,只允許通過較小的電流(不超過幾十毫安),適用于高頻小電流電路,如收音機的檢波等。

       

          面接觸型二極管的“PN結”面積較大,允許通過較大的電流(幾安到幾十安),主要用于把交流電變換成直流電的“整流”電路中。

       

          平面型二極管是一種特制的硅二極管,它不僅能通過較大的電流,而且性能穩定可靠,多用于開關、脈沖及高頻電路中。

       

      二極管的導電特性

       

          二極管最重要的特性就是單方向導電性。在電路中,電流只能從二極管的正極流入,負極流出。下面通過簡單的實驗說明二極管的正向特性和反向特性。

       

      正向特性

          在電子電路中,將二極管的正極接在高電位端,負極接在低電位端,二極管就會導通,這種連接方式,稱為正向偏置。必須說明,當加在二極管兩端的正向電壓很小時,二極管仍然不能導通,流過二極管的正向電流十分微弱。只有當正向電壓達到某一數值(這一數值稱為“門檻電壓”,鍺管約為0.2V,硅管約為0.6V)以后,二極管才能直正導通。導通后二極管兩端的電壓基本上保持不變(鍺管約為0.3V,硅管約為0.7V),稱為二極管的“正向壓降”。

       

      2、反向特性

       

          在電子電路中,二極管的正極接在低電位端,負極接在高電位端,此時二極管中幾乎沒有電流流過,此時二極管處于截止狀態,這種連接方式,稱為反向偏置。二極管處于反向偏置時,仍然會有微弱的反向電流流過二極管,稱為漏電流。當二極管兩端的反向電壓增大到某一數值,反向電流會急劇增大,二極管將失去單方向導電特性,這種狀態稱為二極管的擊穿。

       

      二極管的主要參數

       

          用來表示二極管的性能好壞和適用范圍的技術指標,稱為二極管的參數。不同類型的二極管有不同的特性參數。對初學者而言,必須了解以下幾個主要參數:

       

      1、額定正向工作電流

       

          是指二極管長期連續工作時允許通過的最大正向電流值。因為電流通過管子時會使管芯發熱,溫度上升,溫度超過容許限度(硅管為140左右,鍺管為90左右)時,就會使管芯過熱而損壞。所以,二極管使用中不要超過二極管額定正向工作電流值。例如,常用的IN40014007型鍺二極管的額定正向工作電流為1A。

       

      2、最高反向工作電壓

       

          加在二極管兩端的反向電壓高到一定值時,會將管子擊穿,失去單向導電能力。為了保證使用安全,規定了最高反向工作電壓值。例如,IN4001二極管反向耐壓為50V,IN4007反向耐壓為1000V。

       

      3、反向電流

       

          反向電流是指二極管在規定的溫度和最高反向電壓作用下,流過二極管的反向電流。反向電流越小,管子的單方向導電性能越好。值得注意的是反向電流與溫度有著密切的關系,大約溫度每升高10,反向電流增大一倍。例如2AP1型鍺二極管,在25時反向電流若為250uA,溫度升高到35,反向電流將上升到500uA,依此類推,在75時,它的反向電流已達8mA,不僅失去了單方向導電特性,還會使管子過熱而損壞。又如,2CP10型硅二極管,25時反向電流僅為5uA,溫度升高到75時,反向電流也不過160uA。故硅二極管比鍺二極管在高溫下具有較好的穩定性。

       

      測試二極管的好壞

       

          初學者在業余條件下可以使用萬用表測試二極管性能的好壞。測試前先把萬用表的轉換開關撥到歐姆檔的RX1K檔位(注意不要使用RX1檔,以免電流過大燒壞二極管),再將紅、黑兩根表筆短路,進行歐姆調零。

       

      1、正向特性測試

       

          把萬用表的黑表筆(表內正極)搭觸二極管的正極,,紅表筆(表內負極)搭觸二極管的負極。若表針不擺到0值而是停在標度盤的中間,這時的阻值就是二極管的正向電阻,一般正向電阻越小越好。若正向電阻為0值,說明管芯短路損壞,若正向電阻接近無窮大值,說明管芯斷路。短路和斷路的管子都不能使用。

       

      2、反向特性測試

       

          把萬且表的紅表筆搭觸二極管的正極,黑表筆搭觸二極管的負極,若表針指在無窮大值或接近無窮大值,管子就是合格的。

       

      二極管的應用

       

      1、整流二極管

       

          利用二極管單向導電性,可以把方向交替變化的交流電變換成單一方向的脈動直流電。

       

      2、開關元件

       

          二極管在正向電壓作用下電阻很小,處于導通狀態,相當于一只接通的開關;在反向電壓作用下,電阻很大,處于截止狀態,如同一只斷開的開關。利用二極管的開關特性,可以組成各種邏輯電路。

       

      3、限幅元件

       

          二極管正向導通后,它的正向壓降基本保持不變(硅管為0.7V,鍺管為0.3V)。利用這一特性,在電路中作為限幅元件,可以把信號幅度限制在一定范圍內。

       

      4、繼流二極管

       

          在開關電源的電感中和繼電器等感性負載中起繼流作用。

       

      5、檢波二極管

       

          在收音機中起檢波作用。

       

      6、變容二極管

       

          使用于電視機的高頻頭中。

      `
    3. 更新時間:2016-05-25
    4. 發布者:
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