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    3. 產品應用
      首頁 > 產品應用>>>智能電動機系統保護電路設計解析

      智能電動機系統保護電路設計解析

      隨著電子技術的發展和智能電動機保護器技術的成熟而普及率越來越高。智能電動機保護器采用了微處理器技術,不僅解決了傳統的熱繼整定粗糙、不能實現斷相保護,重復性差、測量參數誤差大的缺點。保護器通過電流來判斷斷相故障,軟件模擬熱積累過程的方法來實現過載保護等方法保證了電機的可靠運行,而微處理器強大的擴展性包括開關量輸入、繼電器輸出,4~20mA變送輸出、RS485($49.9800)通訊等很好的滿足了控制系統的“四遙”功能。

      電動機保護器提高了電動機運行的可靠性和系統智能化要求,因此保護器的可靠運行起著舉足輕重的作用,同時也對保護器抗外界干擾提出了比較現實的要求。采用Freescale公司的高性能處理器MC9S08AW60($3.8740)。MC9S08AW60是Freescale公司一款基于S08內核的高度節能型處理器,是第一款認可用于汽車市場的微控制器??蓱迷诩译?、汽車、工業控制等場合,具有業內最佳的EMC性能。

      電源端濾波處理

      利用電磁原理進行硬件電路濾波是提高保護器EMC 的有效方法。線路如下圖,經熱敏電阻t、壓敏電阻RV1、電感L1、L2、差模電容C1、共模電感L3、共模電容C2、C3組成的兩級濾波處理,很好的隔離了由于電源端的輸入和輸出干擾。PTC熱敏電阻器的主要用于過流過熱保護,直接串在負載電路中,在線路出現異常狀況時,能夠自動限制過電流或阻斷電流,當故障排除后又恢復原態,俗稱“萬次保險絲”。根據線路的最大工作電流來確定選擇。壓敏電阻主要用于吸收各種操作浪涌及感應雷浪涌過壓保護,以防止這類過電壓干擾或損壞各種電路元件。根據設計經受的浪涌電壓按照最大允許使用電壓和通流容量來選擇。其中,L1、L2、C1為抑制差模干擾,L3、C2、C3為抑制共模干擾。L1、L2鐵芯應選擇不易飽和的材料及M-F特性優良的材料。按照IEC-380安全技術指標推薦,圖中元件參數的選擇范圍為:C1=0.1~2uF;C2、C3=2.2~33uF;L3為幾個或幾十毫亨,隨工作電流不同而取不同的參數值。

       

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      圖1 電源端處理圖

       

       

      2

      圖2 電源端未濾波處理的實驗效果

       

       

      3

      圖3 電源端濾波處理后的實驗效果

       

      上圖為電源端是否使用濾波器,使用瑞士TRANSIENT 2000電磁兼容測試儀1000V 100KHZ 0.75mS條件EFT群脈沖實驗,從TEXtronix TDS1012B捕抓到的信號比較,未使用濾波處理的電源輸出端產生了尖峰脈沖,會導致微處理器復位,甚至死機。

      信號端處理

      諧波和電磁輻射干擾會導致保護器誤動作,使電氣儀表計量不準確,甚至無法正常工作。在電動機控制回路中產生該類干擾源為變頻器和現場對講機。解決的方法有:一是信號輸入線膠合,膠合的雙膠線能降低共模干擾,由于改變了導線電磁感應的磁通方向,使其感應互相抵消。二是內部線路處理。如下圖,采用雙差分輸入的差動放大器,具有很高的共模抑制比。在輸入回路中接RC濾波器、信號的輸入和輸出端使用專用器件、降低輸入輸出阻抗、可靠接地和合理的屏蔽等措施。

       

      4

      圖4  信號處理電路

       

      保護輸出端處理

      輸入輸出端采用光電隔離的方法,也是可以消除共模干擾,同時在保護繼電器的的輸出端并接壓敏電阻,有效的提高了繼電器的壽命,也降低了由于外部接觸器動作對內部的干擾??紤]到客戶使用控制電壓的不確定性和接觸器線圈容量,確認使用MYG14D821。

       

      5

      圖5 保護輸出電路

       

      外部存儲技術和看門狗保護電路

      使用外置存儲芯片X25043,SPI接口。微處理器內置SPI控制模塊,方便的與該芯片接口,外部存儲技術保證了運行狀態和事件的記錄。低電壓復位和外部看門狗提高了保護器的可靠性。

       

      6

      圖6 外置存儲器和看門狗電路

       

      主體與顯示單元通過RS485連接

      考慮到使用環境的特殊性和要求的多樣性,主體與顯示單元之間連接也采用RS485 Modbus-Rtu協議連接,提高了顯示與控制的可靠性。保護器起著保護電動機的重任,對它的要求是既不能誤動,也不能拒動,而且必須快速。實時多任務的調度實際是通過時間片的輪換實現宏觀上的多任務效果。對于保護器而言,存在著三個重要的任務,等間隔的交流采樣,根據算法得到穩態與暫態電量數據;根據得到的數據判斷故障,故障計時、清零和脫扣輸出;人機交互界面。下圖以一個周波T=20mS,32點采樣為例(考慮到快速除法),32次采樣總時間為3.2mS,數據計算時間為9.72mS, 計時0.36mS,則人機交互的時間為6.72mS。這樣的任務調度即滿足了保護實時性要求,又較快的響應了參數設置。

       

      7

      圖7 任務執行關系

       

      在對信號多次采樣的基礎上,通過軟件算法提取最逼近真值的數據。這種算法計算連續的周期的交流信號,精度高,抗波形畸變能力強。在使用這種算法時,也可同時采用連續平均值法、中值算法等數字濾波,提高保護器的抗干擾能力。本文針對低壓智能電動機保護器在實際使用中遇到的各種電磁兼容問題,根據微處理器系統的特點從硬件和軟件兩個方面,提出了抗干擾方法,獲得了良好的EMC性能。

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    4. 更新時間:2016-06-01
    5. 發布者:
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