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    3. 產品應用
      首頁 > 產品應用>>>整流二極管應用

      整流二極管應用

      ① 整流二極管:一種將交流電能轉變為直流電能的半導體器件。通常它包含一個PN結,有陽極和陰極兩個端子。

      ② P區的載流子是空穴,N區的載流子是電子,在P區和N區間形成一定的位壘。外加使P區相對N區為正的電壓時,位壘降低,位壘兩側附近產生儲存載流子,能通過大電流,具有低的電壓降(典型值為0.7V,稱為正向導通狀態。

      ③ 若加相反的電壓,使位壘增加,可承受高的反向電壓,流過很小的反向電流(稱反向漏電流),稱為反向阻斷狀態。整流二極管具有明顯的單向導電性。

      ④ 整流二極管可用半導體鍺或硅等材料制造。硅整流二極管的擊穿電壓高,反向漏電流小,高溫性能良好。通常高壓大功率整流二極管都用高純單晶硅制造。這種器件的結面積較大,能通過較大電流(可達上千安),但工作頻率不高,一般在幾十千赫以下。整流二極管主要用于各種低頻整流電路。

       

      二、整流二極管整流電路分析

      電力網供給用戶的是交流電,而各種無線電裝置需要用直流電。整流,就是把交流電變為直流電的過程。利用具有單向導電特性的器件,可以把方向和大小交變的電流變換為直流電。下面介紹利用晶體二極管組成的各種整流電路。

      1、半波整流電路

      (圖1)半波整流電路

      圖1是一種最簡單的整流電路。它由電源變壓器B 、整流二極管D 和負載電阻RL 組成。變壓器把市電電壓(多為220V或380V)變換為所需要的交變電壓u2,D 再把交流電變換為脈動直流電。 半波整流原理:變壓器砍級電壓u2,是一個方向和大小都隨時間變化的正弦波電壓,它的波形如圖1所示。在0~K時間內,u2為正半周即變壓器上端為正下端為負。此時二極管承受正向電壓面導通,u2通過它加在負載電阻RL上,在π~2π 時間內,u2為負半周,變壓器次級下端為正,上端為負。這時D承受反向電壓,不導通,RL上無電壓。在π~2π時間內,重復0~π 時間的過程,而在3π~4π時間內,又重復π~2π時間的過程。這樣反復下去,交流電的負半周就被“削”掉了,只有正半周通過RL,在RL上獲得了一個單一右向(上正下負)的電壓,從而達到了整流的目的,但是,負載電壓Usc以及負載電流的大小還隨時間而變化,因此,通常稱它為脈動直流。

      這種除去半周、圖下半周的整流方法,叫半波整流。不難看出,半波整說是以"犧牲"一半交流為代價而換取整流效果的,電流利用率很低(計算表明,整流得出的半波電壓在整個周期內的平均值,即負載上的直流電壓Usc =0.45e2 )因此常用在高電壓、小電流的場合,而在一般無線電裝置中很少采用。

       

      2、全波整流電路(單向橋式整流電路)

      如果把整流電路的結構作一些調整,可以得到一種能充分利用電能的全波整流電路。

      (圖2)全波整流電路

      全波整流電路,可以看作是由兩個半波整流電路組合成的。變壓器次級線圈中間需要引出一個抽頭,把次組線圈分成兩個對稱的繞組,從而引出大小相等但極性相反的兩個電壓。如圖2所示,全波整流不僅利用了正半周,而且還巧妙地利用了負半周,從而大大地提高了整流效率(Usc=0.9e2,比半波整流時大一倍)。

      注:圖2所示的全波整濾電路,需要變壓器有一個使兩端對稱的次級中心抽頭,這給制作上帶來很多的麻煩。另外,這種電路中,每只整流二極管承受的最大反向電壓,是變壓器次級電壓最大值的兩倍,因此需用能承受較高電壓的二極管。  

      3、橋式整流電路

      橋式整流電路是使用最多的一種整流電路。這種電路,只要增加兩只二極管口連接成“橋”式結構,便具有全波整流電路的優點,而同時在一定程度上克服了它的缺點。

      (圖3)單相全波橋式整流電路

      橋式整流電路的工作原理如下:u2為正半周時,對D1、D3加正向電壓,Dl,D3導通;對D2、D4加反向電壓,D2、D4截止。電路中構成u2、Dl、RL 、D3通電回路,在RL上形成上正下負的半波整洗電壓,u2為負半周時,對D2、D4加正向電壓,D2、D4導通;對D1、D3加反向電壓,D1、D3截止。電路中構成u2、D2、RL 、D4通電回路,同樣在RL 上形成上正下負的另外半波的整流電壓。 如此重復下去,結果在RL 上便得到全波整流電壓。

      注:從圖3中還不難看出,單相全波橋式整流電路其波形圖和全波整流波形圖是一樣的。但是橋式電路中每只二極管承受的反向電壓等于變壓器次級電壓的最大值,比全波整洗電路小一半!

       

      三、整流二極管的選擇和運用

      需要特別指出的是,二極管作為整流元件,要根據不同的整流方式和負載大小加以選擇。如選擇不當,則或者不能安全工作,甚至燒了管子;或者大材小用,造成浪費。 另外,在高電壓或大電流的情況下,如果手頭沒有承受高電壓或整定大電濾的整流元件,可以把二極管串聯或并聯起來使用。

      (圖4)二極管并聯使用電路

      二極管并聯的情況:兩只二極管并聯、每只分擔電路總電流的一半,三只二極管并聯,每只分擔電路總電流的三分之一。理論上講:總之,有幾只二極管并聯,流經每只二極管的電流就等于總電流的幾分之一。但是,在實際并聯運用時,由于各二極管特性不完全一致,不能均分所通過的電流,會使有的管子困負擔過重而燒毀。因此需在每只二極管上串聯一只阻值相同的小電阻器,使各并聯二極管流過的電流接近一致。

      注:均流電阻R一般選用零點幾歐至幾十歐的電阻器。電流越大,R應選得越小。

       

      (圖5)二極管串聯使用電路

      二極管串聯的情況:理想上講:有幾只管子串聯,每只管子承受的反向電壓就應等于總電壓的幾分之一。但是,在實際并聯運用時,由于每只二極管的反向電阻不盡相同,會造成電壓分配不均:內阻大的二極管,有可能由于電壓過高而被擊穿,并由此引起連鎖反應,逐個把二極管擊穿。在二極管上并聯的電阻R,可以使電壓分配均勻。

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    4. 更新時間:2016-06-02
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