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    3. 產品應用
      首頁 > 產品應用>>>功率器件在混動汽車(HEV)中的應用

      功率器件在混動汽車(HEV)中的應用

      混合動力汽車(HEV)市場的增長在很大程度上取決于每加侖/英里這一能耗指標及追加投入的每個硬幣所帶來的好處以及混合系統現場的可靠性。消費者將混合汽車與標準汽車進行比較,并期待在整體更低擁有成本的前提下起碼具有同樣的性能和可靠性?;旌掀囋黾拥某杀颈仨氃趽碛衅陂g通過節省燃料和維護成本得到回報。 用在HEV中逆變器和dc-dc轉換器中的功率模塊和其內的功率器件是主要的性能、可靠性和成本驅動器。效率、功率密度和特定功率是一些關鍵性能指標。最重要的可靠性規范是熱循環和功率循環。 混合動力汽車的分類 在混合汽車驅動系統中,需將一或幾個電機與燃燒引擎一起使用??筛鶕旌铣潭群拖到y架構對混合汽車進行分類??杀环譃槲ⅲ╩icro)級、輕度(mild)級和完全(full)級的混合程度決定電機執行的功能。該分類還決定所需的功率級及優選的系統架構。 串行、并行和功率分配是最常用的架構。對一款特定車輛來說,混合程度和系統架構的選擇主要取決于所需的功能、車輛大小、行駛年限及設定的燃油經濟性指標。每個混合系統的功率電子內容各不一樣,它取決于功能、功率要求和架構。 當僅需要啟動-停止功能時(例如旅行車場合),用一個集成起動器/交流發電機系統代替了起動器和交流發電機的并行微混合的方法就很通用。在這些系統中,電壓和功率等級相對較低,其油耗的改進在10%左右。 除啟動-停止功能外,當需要時,一個輕度混合系統可提升/輔助引擎功率,另外,它還從再生制動中獲取能量,從而可將油耗的改進提升到15%左右。增加的功能需要更高的能耗,所以要采用高壓器件(80V 到600V)。 若以完全電子模式運行車輛,則需要一個具有高壓和大電流能力的完全混合系統。根據應用,完全混合系統可具有串行、并行和功率分配架構,它可將油耗降低35%。 HEV系統中功率電子面臨的挑戰HEV系統中的功率電子需高效地將能量從dc轉至ac(電池到電機)、從ac轉至dc(發電機到電池)及從dc 到dc(對升壓轉換器來說,是從低的電池電壓到高的逆變器輸入電壓;對降壓轉換器來說是從高壓電池到低壓電池)。因在該能量轉換中,要對高壓和大電流進行開關,所以需采用具有最低損耗的功率器件技術。對較低的系統電壓和電流來說,MOSFET技術比IGBT有更好的功率密度,它們用在微混合應用中。對輕度混合應用來說,當系統電壓高于120V時,IGBT是首選器件。對全混合應用來說,600V到1200V的IGBT是使用的唯一器件。 一般來說,傳統的NPT IGBT在導通損耗和開關損耗特性間有一個平衡。若導通損耗降低則開關損耗增加。英飛凌的溝道FieldStop IGBT及配套的EmCon二極管技術與傳統器件相比,在增加芯片電流密度的同時減小了導通和開關損耗。通過采用一個場截止(fieldstop)層來得到更低損耗,該層減小了器件厚度并降低了通過器件的壓降。圖1顯示了平面和溝道器件所用不同IGBT技術的截面層。另外,Field-Stop器件可連續工作在150 °C(最高175 °C)的結溫度,該特性強化了芯片電流密度并使采用更高的冷卻溫度變得更容易。
      嵌放在一個便利封裝內的功率模塊可承受極端溫度環境、震動及其它惡劣環境條件。除器件工作引起的溫度變化外,環境溫度變異及車內產生的振動帶來可靠性挑戰。在混合汽車應用中功率模塊預期的使用壽命是15年/15萬英里,所以在設計該模塊時,要使其能具有期望的可靠性。例如,在某些情況,更高的器件性能會對模塊的穩定性產生不良影響。從器件技術的角度講,某些功率器件可工作于高的結溫度,但該更高的結溫度會在線綁定接口產生更高溫度,從而降低模塊功率周期的穩定性。因此,需建立一整套全面的器件和封裝技術規范來優化性能、可靠性和成本。 混合車用功率半導體模塊 應用需要功率模塊具有高電流密度,這也就意味著每單位電流容量具有更小的體積。器件越小,包納其于其內的底層也就越小,結果就得到一個模塊雖小但功率密度更高的模塊。圖2顯示的是英飛凌預期的1200V器件體積的減小情況。顯然,與NPT器件相比,FieldStop器件顯著縮小了體積。
      封裝設計和互連技術對模塊的寄生感應產生很大影響,它們也可被用來改進功率密度。另外,選擇的材料也會對性能和可靠性產生影響。例如,氮化硅底層的成本比氧化鋁底層的成本高很多,但前者的熱性能明顯好于后者。同樣,昂貴的鋁硅碳化物基板也比便宜的銅基板具有高得多的熱循環可靠性。 當為HEV設計功率模塊時,需在設計開始就明確關鍵的障礙。需采用恰當的器件技術、底層布局和封裝技術以滿足性能、可靠性和成本目標。表1顯示了三種模塊在性能和可靠性方面的對比,它們分別是:用于工業可變速驅動的標準半橋62mm模塊、用于輕度混合的六單元(six-pack)HybridPACK1模塊(圖3)和用于全混合的六單元(six-pack)HybridPACK2模塊。
       
      在全部三種模塊內,都采用了相同的600V溝道FieldStop器件技術,但采用的封裝技術不同。62mm和 HybridPACK1模塊實現的器件電流是400A(每開關各有兩個200A IGBT和兩個200A二極管),而HybridPACK2模塊的電流是800A(每開關各有四個200A IGBT和四個200A二極管)。用于62 mm、HybridPACK1和HybridPACK2模塊功率和信號熱連接的封裝技術分別采用的是:焊接、線綁定和超聲波焊接。通過布局改良及采用線綁定的功率和信號熱連接,HybridPACK1模塊的功率密度已比62mm模塊提升了50%。雖然寄生感應增加了50%,但對600V器件來說,這并非一個主要問題,因為在輕度混合應用中最壞的系統電壓情況在200V以下。 通過創新的超聲波焊接工藝和改進的布局,HybridPACK2模塊的功率密度增加了120%以上。多個線連接及為了移動綁定工具分配的空間使線綁定熱連接在封裝內很占空間;超聲波焊接則省去了該空間且速度也比線綁定工藝快。另外,線綁定的電流輸送能力有限。因厚的銅終端在超聲波焊接時與底層融固在一起,所以,超聲波焊接的電流載運能力不受限制。更緊湊的封裝還顯著降低了HybridPACK2封裝的自感。對全混合應用來說,因系統電壓會高于400V,且大電流會產生很大的dI/dt,所以低的寄生感應很重要。 模塊的熱阻抗主要取決于每開關所占的芯片面積、模塊的材料堆疊及底層布局。材料堆疊特性直接影響模塊的熱阻抗,而布局則增加了交叉傳導部分。在62mm和HybridPACK1模塊中,采用了平的銅基層,而HybridPACK2則采用集成的針翅管(pin-finned)銅基層。對帶有平基層的模塊來說,需將導熱脂和散熱層的熱阻抗加起來以得到“從結到環境”的熱阻抗。借助拿掉了導熱脂層并直接將底層與針翅管基板焊接在一起,從而顯著改善了HybridPACK2模塊的熱阻抗表現。 模塊內臨近材料的熱擴展不匹配將使連接部位產生壓力形變并最終導致故障。最大的壓力產生在銅基板上為與底層焊接在一起所涂覆的焊料點上。為加強可靠性,模塊制造商傳統上采用氮化鋁底層與鋁硅碳化物基板的組合,此舉顯著增加了成本。為替代昂貴的鋁硅碳化物,英飛凌開發出采用銅基板和改進的氧化鋁底層的HybridPACK1和HybridPACK2模塊。這種材料組合可滿足可靠性目標要求,但成本卻降低了很多。汽車的可靠性目標是從-40 °C到125 °C的1000次循環。結論 功率模塊的性能、可靠性和成本是HEV市場增長的主要驅動器。為降低成本,需降低功率模塊內器件的功率密度和結溫度。英飛凌的溝道FieldStop IGBT和EmCon就是在增加結溫度的同時可降低導通和開關損耗的這樣一類器件。通過采用高效的功率器件和超聲波焊接技術可顯著改進模塊的功率密度;同樣,采用集成的針翅管基層可改進熱性能。改進的氧化鋁底層和銅基板方法能以低成本為HybridPACK模塊提供最優異的可靠性。對全混合應用來說,HybridPACK2是一款優異的模塊,它提供了高功率密度、低自感、低熱阻及最佳可靠性和最低成本。 `
    4. 更新時間:2016-06-01
    5. 發布者:
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